What is Periconia?
Periconia is a genus of fungi that belongs to the order Pleosporales, class Dothideomycetes. The genus is widespread, containing species that are usually saprophytic  and specific plant pathogens or endophytes on herbaceous or woody plants [2,3].
Periconia species likes moderate and tropical climates, it could be usually found in terrestrial, and freshwater habitats, in tallgrass prairie, and semiarid grassland ecosystem, as well as in mangrove, marine, and hypersaline ecosystems[1-5]. Economically the most important species are Periconia circinata and P. macrospinosa .
Genus is anamorphic and polyphyletic, meaning species are reproduced only asexually and originate from a different ancestor. Species forms pale to dark brown conidia (spherical to ellipsoidal, smooth or ornamented) that are borne mostly on macronematous conidiophores (with or without branches) [2,3].
Periconia sp. produces fusicoccane diterpenes periconicin A and B and recently was found to produce periconin C and D [4,6]. The whole genome was sequenced for Periconia macrospinosa, and its length is 54.99 Megabase pairs (1Mb=1 million bp) .
Where can be Periconia be found?
Periconia spores are more commonly found outdoors and less indoors (incidence 1-5% of total spores indoors) [7,8]. Indoors could be found in a ventilation system, market and storage places, libraries, bedrooms [7,9,10], in dust, on papers and books [10,11]. There is no data of indoor damage by Periconia species, but it is causes deterioration of papers and books .
This genus was introduced is in 1791, when Tode described a type species called Periconia lichenoides. In the meantime, type specimen was lost, but according to its drawings, it resembles to P. byssoides or P. cookie. The database for the Periconia species is incomplete, without any ecological and morphological details, and lack of nucleotide information making their identification difficult [2,3]. The taxonomy of the Periconia spp. is changeable, and the total number of species varies in the literature from around 200 [12,13] to 40 species [14,15]. Frequently isolated species are Periconia circinata, P. macrospinosa, P. byssoides, P. cookie [2,3,16-18], and P. igniaria [5,16,19].
Periconia plant pathogenic species
Periconia circinata and P. macrospinosa are plant pathogens, causing various diseases of roots and leaves . P. igniaria caused leaf spot on weedy plant- yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) , P. macrospinosa caused leaf necrosis of pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica) . In contrast, P. circinata caused blackening and rotting of the roots and stem base of wheat .
Is Periconia dangerous?
Periconia spp. and Periconia atra caused human keratitis . Periconia is known to be potentially allergenic , but a smaller amount of spores (0,63% of total spores per m3) were found in bedrooms of pulmonary hemorrhage patients . Periconin B isolated from P. atropurpurea had potent cytotoxic activity, as decreased cell viability of human cervix carcinoma and Chinese hamster ovary (IC50=8.0 µM) .
Periconicin A isolated from endophytic fungus Periconia sp. exhibited an inhibitory effect on certain pathogens, including Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and Aspergillus niger [4,6]. In contrast, periconin B, C, and D exhibited moderate inhibitor activity against A. niger .
Species Periconia stamensis can inhibit the growth of human pathogens: Bacillus cereus, Lysteria monocytogenes, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, thanks to its metabolites Modiolide A and 4-Chromanone-6-hidroxy-2-methyl-(5IC) .
Compound 2,4-dihydroxy-6-[(1´E,3´E)-penta-1´,3´-dienyl]-benzaldehyde isolated from P. atropurpurea had strong antifungal activity against Cladosporium sphaerospermum and C. cladosporioides . Also, some interesting fact is that Periconia sp. isolated from a host long pepper (Piper longum L.) produced piperine, which is the first report that it could be synthesized by the fungus, not just by the pepper itself. This fungus-derived piperine had strong antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. smegmetis .
Similarly, Periconia sp. isolated from tree Torreya grandifolia produced taxol known as an anticancer compound . It is uncertain if chemical production occurs due to interaction between microbes, but some members of this genus have the potential for novel pharmaceutical products .
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